Is a totally programmed A.I. a prerequisite to the Singularity? I for one don’t think so. I believe that in the future we will have the ability to map the brain so thoroughly that the result will be artificial intelligence. This is different from actually programming from the ground up. The digitized version of a human brain would initially, at least, have limitations and advantages that purely programmed artificial intelligence would not possess. These limitations may include biases, prejudices, and fears based in the material plane that would no longer have any practical application. The advantages may include a moral code that is based on a life lived in our society. These limitations may be quickly overcome by access to all of the worlds amassed knowledge in the blink of an eye. It’s amazing to think of how quickly it, and others like it, could change the world.